Read e-book online Advanced pH Measurement and Control PDF

By Gregory K. McMillan

ISBN-10: 1934394432

ISBN-13: 9781934394434

This best-selling publication presents a transparent, concise, and accomplished view of ways to choose, set up, and keep electrodes, keep watch over valves, and regulate ideas for pH purposes severe for product and water caliber within the method undefined. The e-book covers each element of method layout together with the blending and reagent piping specifications which are very important for a profitable application.
The crucial ideas are summarized as key insights and the easiest practices are offered as principles of thumb during the e-book. The rising potential of dynamic on-line pH estimators is explored to make present pH measurements speedier and extra trustworthy. the most recent advancements in complex batch keep an eye on, adaptive keep an eye on, linear reagent call for keep an eye on, and version predictive regulate are provided to minimize reagent intake and variability.
Этот бестселлер обеспечивает четкое, краткое, и полное представление о том, как выбрать, установить и поддерживать электроды, регулирующие клапаны и стратегию борьбы с измерением рН, решающее значение для качества продукта и воды в обрабатывающей промышленности. Книга охватывает все аспекты проектирования систем, в том числе и требования смешивания реагентов трубопроводов, которые важны для успешного применения. Важнейшие концепции можно резюмировать ключевые идеями и лучшими практиками, представленных в виде эмпирических правил на протяжении всей книги. Возникающие возможности динамического измерения рН изучены, чтобы сделать существующие измерения рН более быстрыми и надежными. Последние события в расширенный контроля, адаптивного управления, линейное управление подачи реагента и модели интеллектуального управления представлены для уменьшения расхода реагентов и изменчивости.

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Extra info for Advanced pH Measurement and Control

Example text

Norma lly, the concentra tion of the acid or base in the infl uent and reagent is not 100%, so the weight fraction of the acid or base in the indi vidual infl uent and reagent streams is used to calculate the diluted stream flows needed for control valve sizing an d feedforward calculations via Equa tions 2-1g and 2-1h . , ry to designate which stream is the source of the acid or base and which stream is the destination to form a mixtu re. To red uce confus ion in Equa tions 2-1g through 2-11, the subscript " t t " will designate the concentration of the acid or base reagent in the effl uent stream; "re" will designate the concentration of the acid or base reagent in the effl uent; "ii" will designate the concentra tion of the incoming acid or base in the influent stream: and "ie" will designate the concentra tion of the incoming acid or base in the effluent th roughout the text.

In Figure 3-le, a weak acid with pKa dissociation constants at 3 and 5 pH is titrated with a weak base with pKa dissociation constants at 9 and I I pH. Notice that three S-shaped titration curves are formed with an equivalence point at the point of steepest slope for each S. The di ssociation constants hav e to be more than 2 pH units apart to create multiple S-sha ped curves. The curves are symmetrical because the concentrations and the distances between the Copyrighted material 59 Chapter 3: TItration Curves ..

It is better in th is case for the controller to see the accelera tion and use rate action to kick the pH back to the flat pa rt. Signal characterization of the controlled variable Is a powerful tool for linearization If the set point Is on the steep portion of a fixed titration curve but may be counter productive to prevent excursions Into the steep region for set points on the bend In the curve. Copyrighted material 27 Chapter 1; The Essentials If a linear trim reagent va lve is not ava ilable for vessel pH control, then signal characterization of the manipulated variable can reduce the nonlinearity introduced by the valve.

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Advanced pH Measurement and Control by Gregory K. McMillan

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