By Michael Quinten
A one-stop, concise consultant on deciding on and measuring skinny movie thickness via optical methods.
This sensible publication covers the legislation of electromagnetic radiation and interplay of sunshine with topic, in addition to the idea and perform of thickness dimension, and smooth functions. In so doing, it exhibits the services and possibilities of optical thickness selection and discusses the strengths and weaknesses of dimension units besides their assessment methods.
Following an advent to the subject, bankruptcy 2 offers the fundamentals of the propagation of sunshine and different electromagnetic radiation in house and subject. the most subject of this booklet, the choice of the thickness of a layer in a layer stack by means of measuring the spectral reflectance or transmittance, is taken care of within the following 3 chapters. the colour of skinny layers is mentioned in bankruptcy 6. ultimately, in bankruptcy 7, the writer discusses a number of commercial purposes of the layer thickness dimension, together with high-reflection and anti-reflection coatings, photolithographic structuring of semiconductors, silicon on insulator, obvious conductive motion pictures, oxides and polymers, skinny movie photovoltaics, and seriously doped silicon.
Aimed at commercial and educational researchers, engineers, builders and brands keen on all components of optical layer and skinny optical movie dimension and metrology, method keep watch over, real-time tracking, and applications.
Chapter 1 advent (pages 1–5):
Chapter 2 Propagation of sunshine and different Electromagnetic Waves (pages 7–57):
Chapter three Spectral Reflectance and Transmittance of a Layer Stack (pages 59–80):
Chapter four The Optical dimension (pages 81–119):
Chapter five Thin?Film Thickness decision (pages 121–140):
Chapter 6 the colour of skinny movies (pages 141–147):
Chapter 7 purposes (pages 149–185):
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Extra info for A Practical Guide to Optical Metrology for Thin Films
4 mm. The oscillator strengths are as high as the real part e1 becomes negative and alters from À20 to þ 40 within a wavelength band of only 100 nm width. At wavelengths longer than 400 nm, e1 exhibits normal dispersion and e2 rapidly decreases. 24b. 24c, we can recognize that the two harmonic oscillators lead to two maxima in the reﬂectance. In this spectral region, the reﬂectance spectrum is rather sensitive to changes caused by thin transparent ﬁlms, either formed as natural oxide or deposited by chemical or physical methods.
Diffraction with a grating as described above (slits in a nontransparent thin plate) is symmetric with respect to the energy diffracted into the order þ m and Àm. However, this homogeneous distribution over all diffraction orders can be modiﬁed. For that, other kinds of gratings are used with grooves instead of slits. The energy distribution can then be modiﬁed by the groove proﬁle, the groove dimensions, the groove materials, and other groove and grating properties such as the reﬂectivity as in the case of reﬂection gratings.
Amorphous semiconductor and oxide materials often have optical functions that depend upon deposition conditions and do not have so sharp features like a harmonic oscillator. The ﬁrst expression for the imaginary part of their dielectric function above the band edge was suggested by Tauc et al. . Jellison and Modine  derived a model based on a combination of the Tauc band egde and the Lorentz oscillator formulation. With this Tauc–Lorentz model, the imaginary part of the complex dielectric function of amorphous materials with band gap (mainly semiconductor materials) can be modeled as e2TL ðvÞ ¼ À Á2 v2P vres Á c Á vÀvgap : À Á v v2 Àv2 2 þ v2 c2 res ð2:106Þ Here, the oscillator has a resonance frequency vres and a damping constant c.
A Practical Guide to Optical Metrology for Thin Films by Michael Quinten